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Lead: Why it is difficult to apply what they learn?
Specifically, how do?
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REVIEW: This article is intended to end the discussion of the following issues:
- Why do so many people feel “heard many things, but still had a bad
this life “?
- Why after reading the book feel useless, even though these books sold very well, word of mouth is good?
- Why is not how the people able to go to school to become entrepreneurs, have a lot of wealth or achieved great success?
- Why is preaching in many cases ineffective?
- Why it is difficult to apply what they learn?
Specifically, how do?
- Why do we even though in an era of knowledge explosion, but still a lack of knowledge?
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01, a story.
In ancient times, there is a people’s field of rockfall blocked the mountain, you can not be cultivated.
Rockfall great, can not be removed only with gunpowder exploded.
So, this family went looking for the recipe to make gunpowder gunpowder.
They asked for a long time, finally we found out that gunpowder is a mixture of sulfur, saltpeter made.
So they bought sulfur, nitrate, mixed together, but after they ignited gunpowder did not explode.
Ins and Outs tried a dozen times without success, they are very angry, but also paid for, and finally unable to toss, had to give up.
To made into powder, sulfur and nitrate to achieve a ratio of 1: 3 down.
Try this unfortunate family of people already know the composition of gunpowder, but because of the lack of quantitative knowledge of the constituent elements, ended in failure.
This story has many contemporary versions, like learning English, as is the case shop selling things.
We can learn from all kinds of places, such as micro-channel tweet, know almost answered, popular books, professional papers, celebrity lectures, extremely rich presentations, sharing his right to hear all kinds of gunpowder formula, but this formula often
It is incomplete, missing the key to knowledge.
And the knowledge that we will be focusing on this article – dark knowledge.
Dark knowledge is knowledge of the type to be ignored, but it is so critical.
Like trace elements in our body, there is a very small amount is one ten-thousandth of our body weight, but it is essential, for example, zinc deficiency in children can lead to impaired brain development, memory and mental decline, emotional control, mental
quality poor condition.
02, dark knowledge contain at least three types, the first one is dispersed knowledge, the second is quantitative importance
knowledge, and the third is the practical knowledge is not included in the framework of existing disciplines.
Hayek dispersed knowledge
Hayek (F. A. Hayek) is the 1974 Nobel laureate in economics.
He proposed the concept of dispersed knowledge in the “use of knowledge in society (The Use of Knowledge in Society)” in.
This article is very important, in 2011, “American Economic Review” to celebrate the 100th anniversary of its founding, when, invited the world’s top economists to award it published the 20 most classic article.
This “use of knowledge in society” is one one.
What is the dispersed knowledge?
Hayek says so, “Today, those who believe that summarize all scientific knowledge is not knowledge, is simply heresy. But a little thought will know, of course, there are many
very important but not organized knowledge, knowledge that is related to a specific time and place, they can not even be called scientific knowledge in a general sense, but it is here, everyone actually for all other people,
have an advantage, because everyone possesses unique information available, and decisions based on such information only be made by each individual, or by his active participation in making this information can be used. “
this is a discipline different from the organization without knowledge, there is no systematic, dispersed knowledge of each individual.
For example, you know that a lack of a convenient area surrounding the fruit shop.
This is the dispersed knowledge, it has not been recorded in any books, it only exists in the minds of individuals.
But you find this knowledge, you can use them to make a useful decision, such as opening a fruit shop.
Hayek is based on this to illustrate the relative superiority of a free economy planned economy, because in a free state of the economy, knowledge is dispersed each individual to collect, process, and play its effects,
the overall allocation of resources better.
Hayek called this all walks of life, understanding of people’s knowledge of the local environment, the special circumstances of idle knowledge is a valuable asset.
This decentralized enough to appear knowledge is very important.
the importance of knowledge
We only know qualitative knowledge, does not help us to complete the goal.
In the story of gunpowder recipe just, you know the qualitative knowledge about the composition of gunpowder does not help you make gunpowder.
in our society today, there are many such examples.
Many dedicated to teaching the “success” of the truth of books and articles fundamental flaw is this.
They tend to tell the importance of gunpowder, a detailed description of the power of gunpowder through a series of stories and case studies, while the principle of gunpowder also a certain amount of interpretation, what finally gives the qualitative formulation gunpowder yes.
But the only lack of quantitative knowledge of gunpowder formula.
This may not be the author intended not tell you, but because such quantitative knowledge more scarce, if you want to get accurate quantitative knowledge needs to pay a terrible cost, often a few group of people who happen to
Couchu appropriate quantitative knowledge and successful experiences, and then he wrote the truth harvest.
But he did not know was that he ignored the quantitative part.
So, even though the reader knows the truth.
But still can not practice.
From the point of view of human history, the emergence of quantitative science of making human productivity has made a huge leap forward, so we fashioned cars, planes, creating a rocket, the spacecraft to achieve a trans-Pacific
communication, millions of common online game.
The importance of knowledge of the selection is very important.
Two people may hold similar information, a person is master of “the importance of the ratio of A and B is 80:20,” another master is “the importance of the ratio of A and B is 70:30,” When they were
AC, will feel to master the same information to each other, “a more important than the B.”
But just because two people of different A, B degree of importance, will bring a fundamental distinction.
For example, the differences in the allotted time to bring different abilities and work, but in the Internet age, winner-take-all phenomenon is widespread, people will choose the best one or two systems used, preferably with one or two music software
and thus the popularity of two different people work will bring non-linear amplification.
“Mary Black and White” thought experiment is the philosophy of a famous experiment.
It is this.
Mary conceived from birth was kept in a house, furnishings and all arrangements are black and white.
Mary can learn all kinds of knowledge about the world through a black and white TV (or books, etc.), of course, include a variety of optical and neurological knowledge about color.
If Mary learned all knowledge of physics after release, when you see the real tomatoes, what would be different?
Jackson philosophers believe, based on our intuition, tend to think of Mary will get some kind of a new experience (sensation), this new experience makes Mary shines, surprised: “Oh, really
the tomato is like this “!
Mary’s This reaction seems to indicate that, even in black and white room has learned all the knowledge of physics, Mary can not explain in advance “When you see the kind of feeling real tomatoes”, it is this feeling so that Mary was surprised
After the practical knowledge that knowledge really see the tomatoes produced in what I call it.
practical knowledge of our anatomy, brain structure.
It can not get through a book-like manner through simulation and imagined.
I have a doctoral study general relativity and talked, I asked him: “? When did you feel that they understand the general theory of relativity,” he told me, “I was beginning to do
general relativity when specific research, but at the time I was learning materials do not understand. “
here reflects the existence of practical knowledge, as if our brains have two areas, one area is located theory
local knowledge, and the other area is the place to put practical knowledge, only through a process of theoretical knowledge into practical knowledge will be.
If we look back at history to learn to swim, we can better understand.
Teach swimming teach the theoretical knowledge, but after you learn to swim, you are master of practical knowledge.
representative Chris Argyris (Chris Argyris), Professor of organizational learning described in the “action science” in a similar concept, he used the term, believing theory (corresponding to profess knowledge) and use
theory (corresponding to the practical knowledge).
Argyris is so described, people asked a management consultant Mr. A: “? When you and your party disagreement, how would you handle” Mr. A replied: “I will first
statement of fundamental differences between the two views as I understand it, then the parties to discuss and solve the problem of what additional information needs. “this is Mr. a believer in the theory (profess knowledge).
But when we examine the taped conversation Mr. A conversation in the actual situation and the parties, but found he only support their views, but denied the point of view of the parties (the use of knowledge).
“We want to practice what they preach.” Is a cliché, often appear in various quarrel, teacher lesson the students, parents discipline their children, friends, friends warned in the scene.
The formulation of practical knowledge is fundamentally different from “We want to practice what they preach,” because this attitude to become a knowledge problem.
If the problem is the attitude that we can change our attitude to achieve in practice what they preach.
But if knowledge is a problem, then we have to master the practical knowledge by learning about the action.
We’ll find someone else to teach or encourage ourselves to achieve “walk the talk” often ineffective.
It is precisely because this is not a question of attitude, we can not switch the attitude to do, we need to learn.
Learning here is broad, we will specifically talk about later, how such practical knowledge is obtained.
03, we have just described three
types of dark knowledge, by pointing out the existence of dark knowledge, we will find that many of the common problems with new solutions, this new solution is the gateway to a truly effective solution.
Two types of luck
We often confuse the two different types of luck.
is a first incomplete information as to bring luck, luck call information; second is to bring luck instability of the system itself, the system is called luck.
Information luck that is when you have mastered the information reaches a certain precision, you will be able to grasp the evolution of the system to which the state determined.
For example, before you have ten identical cup with covered, one with bananas, while the other nine do not.
If you do not have sufficient information, pick a cup, only the probability of 1/10 could have selected banana cup.
And if you fully grasp the information, for example, you know that bananas will emit a particular fragrance, and aroma of a cup near the most concentrated, you can be very sure that this cup banana, banana cup probability you select will be greatly improved,
almost 1 a.
The system luck is that, for any given accurate information, always after a certain time, the system will generate chaos, so that you can not predict the state of the system.
Weather systems is so, even if you put the data on the state of the atmosphere at the moment is very, very accurate measurement, even after the decimal point ten, one hundred, but after some time the atmosphere will enter a state of chaos, you
We can not know the exact situation about the weather.
For now, we can more accurately predict the scale of the week the weather, but for larger scale on the powerless.
We are so accustomed to using the same word that we totally confused the facts and determine the facts.
Information luck entirely by increasing knowledge, especially the dark variety of knowledge to be improved.
Bayesian probability point of view, the information will change the probability of judgment.
Just banana scenario, if you know the most left after two cups of banana is not this knowledge, you select the probability of bananas rises from 1/10 to 1/8.
Because of this, there is a saying “Life is a weak excuse, transportation is strong Qianci” or justified.
is also in part already explained.
Many things are incomplete, or they lack the necessary disperse knowledge, or lack of quantitative knowledge, or lack the necessary practical knowledge.
It is because of the incompleteness of the truth so that the truth in the eyes of some very good, some people view it is the chicken soup.
I would like to cite an example I long preserved.
Art of War goes, winner help of trend momentum, not responsible for others.
Contemporary various scenarios, such as business management training, personal experience sharing are also stressed the need to move with the time, Ming potential, homeopathy, an occasion, got the upper hand, rally.
take potential is undoubtedly important.
We all know from one place to another place such a reason to go the route most energy saving.
Especially in space travel, energy is very valuable.
But now you based on this principle, starting from the planet Neptune to go, how would you do it?
How much energy is needed to prepare it?
You will find still unable to move, because you do not know which route is the most energy province.
knowledge of how to take the situation of dark knowledge.
Here is about space travel “dark knowledge”: in fact, the presence of many natural space highway, movement on these highways, require little energy consumption.
This is because in these paths, because the role of the individual submitting the star attraction of each other, or to help you move forward.
the first time was very surprised to know!
Originally my imagination, movement in the solar system is very energy-consuming, it is necessary to overcome the sun’s gravitational work, many high school physical problems like this are designed, but also bring a laborious experience.
What about our daily lives it?
Such a “highway” dark knowledge, what does?
Who dispersed in mind it?
The myth of the wise, we will seriously reduce the importance of dark knowledge.
We often see a field of very powerful people in another area who have made some bad decisions.
In “Beyond IQ: Why smart people will do stupid things” in the psychologist Stan Norwich (Keith E. Stanovich) cited a lot of examples, such as the clever mathematicians in the case of no good news, a lot of buying
the stock continued to fall, eventually losing all their savings; highly educated professionals to Mexico to find a barefoot doctor, without selecting scientifically tested methods of medical treatment; history professor at the University joined the cult; high school teachers to join MLM organizations.
We usually use intuition to decision-making, and intuition in fact have a variety of problems, such as vivid fallacy, emotional substitute, impulsive coupling thinking, framing effect, belief bias, ignoring the denominator,
link fallacy, non-causal basis of probability, bias blind spot, our position information processing, emotion prediction error, bias and so confident.
Joe Smith was looking at the little red, but red was looking at John Doe.
Joe Smith married George unmarried.
Please tell me your intuition, whether there is a married person looking at an unmarried person?
A. B. is not C. can not be determined
According to the survey people wrong on this question up to 80%, most people chose C (selected visible).
According to the study, intuitive decision is valid only sufficient personal experience in areas of expertise, and to the little experience of place, not suitable for use intuition to decision-making, especially in the face of modern industrialized world after
our ancestors may never come across these scenarios.
In unfamiliar territory, Everyone makes mistakes, whether it is a billionaire or Nobel Prize winners.
For this reason, Warren Buffett only focus on the field of his familiar investment.
In the field of the familiar, the individual has accumulated sufficient experience, full of dark knowledge.
And in an unfamiliar environment, even if you are very smart, took the Mathematical Olympiad gold medal, but lack the necessary knowledge of the dark, can not make good decisions, we can not act wisely.
04, in the previous section we understand what dark knowledge is, why it is so important.
Now let’s talk about how to get dark knowledge.
dark knowledge distributed throughout the universe, and is collected by different individuals.
dark knowledge means that three lines must be my teacher of rationality, equality also means that we should use the eyes to look at everyone.
He has or will have dispersed knowledge you do not have.
a knowledgeable person may have a good understanding of the framework of things, but because he still does not grasp the dispersed knowledge in a specific case can not establish a specific model parameters, can not achieve his goal
So, people need to exchange and share each other’s dark knowledge together to achieve what can not be achieved through cooperation with each other.
In the simplest case, such as pencils, few people have all the technology to produce pencils, pencil surface of the paint you know how to make it?
Do you know how to make a pencil refills it?
Do you know how lettering on the pencil is to achieve it?
Such knowledge is dark in each individual market, companies mastered together to accomplish a seemingly ordinary but great things.
Thus, obtaining a dark knowledge is a jigsaw puzzle, each person has knowledge FIG part, and the pieces together before the formation of the whole picture.
Many people do not realize the profound importance of communication and cooperation, the root cause is to ignore the existence of dark knowledge, they do not recognize their knowledge just drop in the ocean of knowledge.
On the other hand, it is precisely because of this knowledge is scattered, so the exchange of learning dark knowledge is necessary.
When you realize the importance of dark knowledge, recognizing the limited nature of time itself has knowledge, will be a more open mind to look at the various share from various people.
And not because the label or stereotype and look down on those who share.
It should be emphasized here is that we need some way to get effective questioning dark knowledge.
Many lectures, the authors have mentioned some very important value.
But the authors do not adequately emphasize the importance of the relationship it compared with other things.
Because of this, the reader can not receive this value in the end how important knowledge of the dark, so readers will feel like listening to hear the same white.
In order to obtain such a dark knowledge, can be considered involve quantification of questions, “For example, if you need to give up X and Y, what would you give up?”, “If you have 10 hours, how would you
allocate your time “such a problem, then a better understanding sharers said.
Third, we can also get dark knowledge and practices through their own observations of life.
It is important that the world is changing.
Therefore, knowledge about the past of the world will change.
Hayek “apply the knowledge in society,” he wrote, “If we can agree with the main socio-economic problems to adapt to change is the specific time and place of the situation, then we seem to infer
the final decision must be made to those familiar with the situation and direct people to know about the change and the resources to cope with these changes can immediately get to make. “
Hayek demonstrated that knowledge is dispersed
change, familiar with the specific changes people can make good decisions.
So, even if you are very understanding of a place, if not frequently observed, then this knowledge will be obsolete.
Therefore, to some extent, you can put a businessman, entrepreneur looking to make a save or create social wealth of information processing, they need a keen sense changes in demand, understand the changes in the allocation of resources, and make some kind of optimization
observe and practice of life is to increase this to emphasize the importance of acquiring knowledge courses compared to reading or watching the way.
After all, reading books, watching the course is easy, just a few hours seem to learn a lot of things, but as said earlier, there are many dark by this knowledge can not easily get in the way.
Finally, I want to talk a learning community, its mission is to make the fundamental importance of the public to observe the dark knowledge of the package.
To learn a book, for example, the book concentrates a lot of sense, but also play the role of these principles requires a lot of dark knowledge through a learning community, you can take advantage of the number of each person based on specific knowledge to observe dark angle,
then merge together, so that each individual benefit.
And determine whether a community to see how effective the frequency and amount of dark parallel Discover communities and knowledge exchange.
a lot of deliberately thinking
read on and learn the basics
metal, wood is a famous writer, and Ji Xianlin, Chen Yulong said “Peking University Third pen.”
His life knowledgeable, read many books, but also willing to spend full effort.
He has to be able to “read the original Greek and Roman literature, chasing the true source of European history to dispel doubt jump”, alone a dictionary learned very intricate Latin.
Mr. Jin, wood summed up his experience in reading, “read the end,” he said, “No word reading place than the place also has a word more. …… I even word together with a blank
read, as if on each page are in possession of a lot of words, but not a word in. “
this is in the space provided in the blank in reading.
This is the book to read out the dark unspoken knowledge.
And this process requires deliberate thought, that is the intention, targeted thinking outside the comfort zone.
“Why is this place detailed written? Is it because of the importance of this part of the higher thought, whether it is because the author has not mastered because of this section and tasted bitterness?”
only by deliberately thinking in order to obtain superficial reading can not acquire knowledge.
From the perspective of dark knowledge, you will find how many books read, number of pages read, read how long, if not based on deliberate thinking is meaningless.
Just a placebo, or simply to support their ideas, nothing more than to get a few concepts.
There are some ways to think deliberately.
After reading chapter headings such as how they will be expected to write, and then compare authors and their differences, found himself not aware place.
As I have written an imaginary reading comprehension questions for a chapter, I will ask what, then try to answer yourself.
a higher level, the contrast with the different themes of the books to see if they have any different orientation, and why there are different.
Or is the book on these topics form a theory or model of a framework.
Newton’s three laws of motion is a theory about the world of macroscopic material objects.
Big Five personality theory is a theory about the different personalities of individual human beings.
Map is a model of the geography of the world.
For example, many books and talking about their own reconciliation, then I can not summarize a model of reconciliation, and to find their own parameters.
Many books about how to learn, I can not summarize a model of learning, and to find their own parameters.
In short, deliberate thinking need to read outside the comfort zone, you need to cut from the perspective of the earth to overlook the deep jungle perspective, obviously need to see things not so obviously, we need to see things not agree more
In this way, the dark knowledge will emerge.
You will find the familiar world of the original are not so familiar.
a lot of practice
Everyone can understand the importance of reading and a lot to learn, but understand the varying degree.
The reason for this is the different importance of knowledge.
And to promote the importance of this knowledge, it can not be done by preaching.
“smoking is harmful, not smoked.” “I know!”
“eating junk food is bad for your weight loss.” “I know!” p>
“reading is very important!” “I know!” “Why do not you read?”
“mathematics is very important it! you must learn it!” ”
I know! “
such a dialogue, and the list goes on.
Preaching the invalidity of the theory can be used to explain dark knowledge, is some kind of quantitative importance of knowledge is missing.
And this quantitative importance of knowledge can not be passed by a simple language.
To change this importance of knowledge only through practice, through the embodied cognition, through impressive experience.
have first hand knowledge of the practice.
When a smoker saw the photograph of long-term smokers lungs disgusting, he will produce a deep impression, and then really appreciate the harmful importance of knowledge.
When a student to learn a certain amount of medical knowledge, to see the way certain bacteria, understand its hazards, look at their daily diet, it will abandon many bad ways, and even refused to eat the night food stalls.
When a child sees aurora, lying on the ground to enjoy the stunning scenery of the Star, he might have a strong yearning for space, and then produce a knowledge of the importance of astronomy, cosmology, physics.
“The bread was so delicious!”, So when someone told you, you’ll want to personally taste, in the end how good it is.
Because in the end about how delicious this knowledge and language can not be shared.
Although you know that bats are the same to perceive the world through ultrasound, you can not appreciate the bat to see how the other half.
Because you do not have the bat organ, bat brain network.
If you do not believe, try to explain why a kitty cute?
The fundamental way
gain practical knowledge is to understand it.
Specifically, there are two strategies
- personal experience, personally exposure to the
- simulation experience, by reading the story
the novel often allow readers to enter the simulation scenarios, immersed in the story of the character, experience in a fantasy world.
When excited or tears, grief or into a river upstream.
In the “story thinking” in, gave NASA (NASA), the US Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Ms. Annette Simmons had lessons on Microsoft, he said, “There is no good story
and I would rather not talk. “she also stressed not only by citing facts and data transfer dark knowledge, you need to tell the story.
So, if you want to pass some kind of knowledge, try to form a story, or with each other to personal experience.
If you want to show your love for someone, with action to pass this knowledge.
If you want to feel a real sense, a theory, on to the field to practice it personally!
I had seriously neglected the importance of practice, specific performance is that although I do know that exercise is good, but I still will not do, and indulge in easy to read.
Now think about it, if at the time while learning theoretical knowledge, while they practice in order to obtain practical knowledge corresponding to that nice ah!
05, is a science fiction section of the present time.
and artificial intelligence could find and use dark knowledge can not be understood by the human brain.