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Lead: article takes you understand the history of mobile communications a magnificent!
Source | network optimization mercenaries, ID: hr_opt Edit | Poker investor, please indicate the source
live without mobile communications, generated from information transmitted back to the receiver, the communication network contains numerous flash wisdom.
Evolution from 1G to convert the scene of the times 5G access the scene, behind the rivers and lakes disputes about the communication standard is also lumpy, intense anomalies, and ultimately remitted a magnificent history of mobile communication.
1G analog King – Motorola
mentioned two-way wireless communication, without mentioning the Motorola (Motorola).
If AT & T is the year the king of wired communications, Motorola is the pioneer of mobile communications.
Initially, wireless communication technologies are applied to a national aerospace and defense industry, with a military color, Motorola’s development as well.
Motorola was founded in 1928, signed a contract with the US Army during World War II to assist in its research and development of wireless communication tools.
In 1941, Motorola developed the first across ages SCR-300, is still the most classic movie image of American soldiers communications.
-300 weighing 16 kilograms, or even a special need who bear the Signal Corps, or mounted on vehicles and aircraft, but due to the SCR-300 uses FM radio technology that enables distance calls reached an unprecedented 12.9 kilometers, enough to make artillery observer Contact
to artillery positions, but also it allows ground forces with the Army Air Corps communications.
Whether it is communication equipment during World War II, after the first color TVs, semiconductor chips, DSP communications chip mobile phone, and “Big Brother” in 1980 invention, the establishment of AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System)
telephone system …
Motorola as a leader in analog communications technologies, mobile communications and computer processors are the market leader in the field, was selected as one of the world’s most forward-thinking companies in 1989
Unfortunately, the generation of giants ultimately failed to follow market trends in transition, ultimately crashing down.
2G GSM and CDMA Argument
Since call quality 1G analog communication and poor security, signal instability, people started to develop new mobile communication technology
The late 1980s, as large scale integrated circuits, microprocessors and digital signal applications more mature, when the mobile operators gradually turned to digital communication technology, mobile communications into the 2G era.
As the communications industry as a national strategic industry, behind the dispute is an integrated communications standards struggle between nations, the Union, once they lose the party shall continue to pay high royalties to the other league,
and more likely to be the other side to grasp the initiative in the industry.
Motorola monopolized 1G, also means that the first-generation communication standard grip in the hands of the Americans.
When digital communications start-ups, European countries realized: it alone is technically difficult and will compete with the United States.
For two decades, the EU has always been far behind the United States, if each come up with a different standard, is difficult to account for dominance in the world (standard this is something many people speak loudly fist hard to win
up; you can not just around the world with a person with others is not the same).
They learned the lessons from the failure of their own way, to strengthen internal alliances, and finally surpassed the United States in the 2G era.
1982 European Postal and Telecommunications Administrations set up a study “Mobile Experts Group” responsible for communication standards.
GSM mobile that is the name of the Group of Experts (French: Groupe Spécial Mobile) abbreviation, acronym meaning was later changed to “Global System for Mobile Communications” (Global System for Mobile communications), in order to
worldwide promotion of GSM.
GSM is a time division multiple access technology (TDMA), which is characterized by a channel divided equally among eight caller, a person can only speak, everyone turns to use channels 1/8
GSM capacity is limited, when the user is overloaded, it is necessary to build more base stations.
However, GSM also highlighted the advantages: easy to deploy and features a new digital signal encoding replace the original analog signal; also supports international roaming, user-friendly SIM card when changing the mobile phone can still store personal data; can send a 160 word length
We can say that technology and mobile communications applications in 2G times have been dramatically improved.
1991, Ericsson and Nokia took the lead to set up the first GSM network in continental Europe.
In just a decade, 162 countries around the world have built a GSM network, the number of users more than 100 million, the market share of up to 75%.
Europeans ambitious to want to go beyond the US to dominate the world, but at the same time the Americans come up with three sets of communication systems.
Wherein two of the same is based on TDMA technology, the third set is introduced Qualcomm Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).
TDMA of time only one person, eight users have to take turns using, limited capacity; however, CDMA uses encryption technology, so that everyone else at the same time speech will not be heard (like No. 1
only the call number 1, number 2 and number 2 can only talk without disturbing each other), significantly increasing capacity.
From the technical point of view, the capacity of the CDMA system is more than 10 times of GSM.
Since 1950, CDMA is one of the US military communications technology.
In the founder Irwin Jacobs and Andrew Viterbi leader, Qualcomm CDMA success in 1989 will be used in mobile communications.
However, a high-pass
no actual phone manufacturing experience, European operators are also not interested in its intellectual property rights.
Even in the United States only a handful of operators willing to use the system.
Early reports are quite negative about the CDMA base station can not achieve the desired performance, CDMA mobile phones and nowhere to buy.
Overall is thunder and rain.
At the same time, Europe invest heavily in GSM, a few short years to establish a standard international roaming, widespread GSM base station in the world.
natural, CDMA than GSM started too late, coupled with domestic resources has been dispersed, CDMA lost most of the country.
In the 2G era, CDMA is a loser.
On the other hand, the United States failed on the communication standards battle, and indirectly also affected the competitiveness of Motorola phones.
When the digital cellular phone gradually substituted analog mobile phone, Motorola still analog mobile phone market share of 40%, but not to the digital mobile telephone into two.
For the threat of digital communications, Motorola misjudged the life of analog phones, executives said at the time that: 43 million analog mobile phone users, can not be wrong!
As with AT & T did not want to throw money at the wireless telephone sector in general, Motorola among the most profitable, and to speak the loudest analog mobile phone unit less likely to allow resources to flow digital phone department.
The same story is also found in the then Nokia smartphone battle.
The few corporate giants fall is due to a single external factors, mostly due to corporate internal friction, leading to the slow progress in technology.
In 1997, Motorola finally stepped down, its global mobile phone market share plummeted from 50 percent in 1997 to 17%.
It lasted for 20 years before finally being brilliant Motorola is still a paper, only in 1992 introduced the first digital mobile phone companies – Nokia defeat.
3G Qualcomm patent dispute mine and three standards
as described hereinbefore, Qualcomm CDMA technology on capacity and call quality are superior to the European GSM TDMA technology.
But early step in the deployment of GSM, short rapid implementation of global, but at the time that CDMA is thunder, little rain, Qualcomm was in crisis.
But in the 3G era, there is a reverse situation.
what is the root cause?
Let us first say something about Qualcomm’s history.
1 in Patent mines Qualcomm
Part high pass into the San Diego California, and a thick wall face of the wall to the patent,
inlaid Qualcomm patents held by nearly 1400 for the mobile communication.
the famous “Qualcomm Patent Wall”.
Qualcomm are all clearly white written on this wall: wealth, monopoly, Qualcomm success … like a snake, well versed in the host strangling the neck, high profit margins of the road.
Cold War, the US military communication system can be used to encrypt and decrypt information, called Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology, to ensure that no information is stolen by the Soviet Union during transmission.
Linkabit is San Diego, California (San Diego) the first electronic communications technology company, responsible for undertaking this order, the US military and aerospace bureau to develop satellite communications and wireless communications technology.
two founders are all the communications sector of Daniel ──Irwin Jacobs taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering, his book “communication engineering principles” (principles of communication Engineering), and even then laid the foundation for today’s communications, is still
communications sector Bible Collection.
Another founder Andrew Viterbi made famous Viterbi algorithm (Viterbi algorithm).
1980 years Jacobs and Viterbi Linkabit sold belong to the field of communication M / A-COM Corporation, and founder Qualcomm (Qualcomm) in 1985, which means there is a communication quality (QUAlity COMMunications).
1989 years, the Qualcomm CDMA greatly improved the power problem, and its commercial success.
Unfortunately, at this time the European Telecommunications Standards Institute has embarked on GSM technology standards, then quickly implemented to Europe and Japan.
Native American Telecommunications Industry Association also finds GSM used TDMA technology 2G standards.
Although larger than TDMA, CDMA capacity, better call quality, but the technology is more complex, most carriers do not believe in the feasibility of the technology.
One of the key development of Qualcomm, Jacobs is cunning and unpredictable of the three patent rogue means:
1) made mines: the establishment of monopoly patent portfolio
Qualcomm around power control, with frequency reuse, soft switching technology to build a wall CDMA patents, compared to other manufacturers in the quantity and quality of patents have a very big advantage.
But Qualcomm is not satisfied here, it is to a person to enjoy this huge profits.
Qualcomm, and raised a large number of patent attorneys Army no less than R & D department, through mergers and acquisitions, sued rival patent infringement patent battle, all the patents related to CDMA step by step Longluo over.
patent attorney’s duties is to apply for patents, patent talk about price, accuse the infringing company.
The second step is to apply a lot of junk patents, patent garbage ensure its core patent ── they apply for a new patent before the patent protection expires old, or a large number of peripheral CDMA patent application, then the declaration
technology is a new technology ring, all blocked on a CDMA technique periphery.
2) underground mines: the patented technology set into the communication standards
collected together patent mines, but had to step on people to get the job.
First of all need to understand why communication standards?
You can not let get through mobile telecommunications handsets, Huawei’s purpose can not get through the iPhone, to formulate a unified communication standards is to allow interoperability between different energy business operators, base station equipment and mobile phones.
Since co-sponsored by the European GSM standard operators and equipment manufacturers (such as Ericsson, Nokia) in access to intellectual property, patents are essentially open.
but made using a 2G CDMA standard technology on the surface of Qualcomm, CDMA patent actually hidden in the inside, which is equal to the use of standard 2G, also stepped Qualcomm patents.
This kind of monopoly of a single company patents a standard of conduct, fair to say that will not happen in the communication standards developed by the members of each country composed of small groups, vendors and other countries because of their conflict of interest, must
It will be strongly opposed.
However, when the 2G study has just started, the GSM standard is still in the majority of European manufacturers of attention raised by Qualcomm’s CDMA technology and not many people smell it, but let Qualcomm, make it through.
3) More mines: the whole algorithm will CDMA chip
high pass final move, the CDMA algorithms are embedded in the integrated chip.
Its most prominent feature is the integration of signal transmission and reception, digital to analog conversion is equal to the power management on a single chip, i.e., today we call the SoC (System on Chip, system on a chip).
As a result, use Qualcomm’s patented mobile phone manufacturers, must prepayment sum license fee to obtain patent rights.
In the chip mass production or product, and then based on product shipments charged according to the price of a certain percentage of the average cost required to pay royalties ranging from 5 to 10 percent of mobile phone sales.
This is quite reasonable, but – screen, lens, housing and other parts all irrelevant with CDMA, have also been drawn a percentage of sales.
(Is it on the phone inlaid diamond block, profits have to be considered in Qualcomm’s head it?)
Then Qualcomm SoC provides a complete solution for most mobile phone manufacturers have not integrated SoC
technical capacity, can only obediently endure the knife.
You setup, have someone willing to step on.
Qualcomm’s patented high threshold for blocking competitors, but also blocked the rapid CDMA market, most operators chose the GSM system, rely on royalties to feed Qualcomm live in the United States is not good.
In this case, Qualcomm ushered in an olive branch ── from the South Korean government.
Prior to the development of CDMA, South Korean operators, mobile phones and other communication equipment manufacturing industry quite weak.
November 1990, Qualcomm and Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) signed a technology transfer agreement related to CDMA.
Qualcomm agreed to make 20% a year to collect royalties in Korea Korea Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, to assist its research, the South Korean government also announced that CDMA is Korea’s only 2G mobile communications standard, and full support for South Korea’s Samsung
, LG and other CDMA technology into commercial applications.
South Korea does not move closer to the European support GSM, CDMA selected as the 2G standard, mainly for low patent concessions, although bear a certain amount of risk, and ultimately get the corresponding reward.
Through the development of CDMA, Korea’s mobile penetration is rapidly increasing, the number of mobile communication users reached 1 million in just five years, SK Telecom became the world’s largest CDMA operator.
Communications equipment manufacturers is a meteoric rise, Samsung became the world’s first CDMA mobile phone exporters.
CDMA not only led to the development of the Korean telecommunications industry, also contributed to the development of the Korean economy.
So multi Someone said: “Korean saved Qualcomm,” Qualcomm has since become more global multinational companies.
South Korea’s successful example, the first to demonstrate the possibility of CDMA official business to the world, but also to the United States some operators and equipment manufacturers for CDMA technology has begun to restore confidence.
Qualcomm and Korean earn bowl full of pots full of smiling at the same time, let’s pull back to Europe the picture here.
2000 years later, the upper limit of the speed and capacity of 2G gradually facing a bottleneck, experienced technical change between 1G 2G blink of an eye to massive turnaround, major mobile phone manufacturers ate the lessons of history, ready to meet with all of them on tenterhooks
2 in Europe wits: Three 3G communication standards
3G is the biggest advantage of faster network speed, download speed of only about 9600bps ~ 2G
64kbps, while the initial 3G speed was 300k-2Mbps, three times more than a full upgrade.
Ericsson, Nokia, Alcatel, the strength of European manufacturers, while recognizing the advantages of TDMA face of CDMA, 3G and more difficult as the core technology, but who do not want to accept the hegemony of the high-pass scheme.
So Europe and Japan and other countries to implement the GSM standard, originally established to unite the organization 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project), responsible for developing the world’s third-generation communications standards.
3GPP carefully reference CDMA technology, to minimize bypassing patent trap set at Qualcomm, we developed a similar principle of W-CDMA.
highpass not fall quickly with the Korean coalition 3GPP2 (3rd Generation Partnership Project 2) compete with 3GPP, Release of CDMA2000.
Now that you have set their own standards, of course, we Chinese can not be left behind, just carried out a TD-SCDMA.
who do not want to be a high pass robbing, so use less CDMA2000; TD-SCDMA only used in China; naturally, the final result is most participants of W-CDMA, the three most mature 3G communication standards
market share is the highest.
However, due to the three communication technologies to touch the underlying patented technology of CDMA, still can not be avoided Qualcomm abruptly Kendiao a profit pie, Qualcomm 3G era can be described as the biggest winner.
However, the real high-pass hit the jackpot, or rise from smartphones.
rise 3 3G from the iPhone start
In fact, since 2000, the communications industry in shouting 3G, but shouted a few years,
until 2007, in 2008 it began to really spread, which is what causes it?
very simple, the market is no killer application, no matter how strong your technology is useless.
On the contrary, Qualcomm patents great pains to write standards, but no one with a standard, it is only your hands.
3G fire really let up, so that high-pass hit the jackpot, or from a mobile communication device innovation – smart phones.
mention of smart phones, we naturally think of Steve Jobs, Apple introduced the first iPhone in 2007, thus promoting an era of smart phones.
But think of this idea of smartphones people are not Joe closer, he is also the former Nokia Symbian phones with Microsoft Windows Phone draw comes.
beginning of the 21st century, the world telecommunications industry depicted 3G says: anyone can anytime, anywhere, using mobile phones or other mobile devices (such as PDA), phone, Internet; transmission of voice in addition to outside,
You can also transfer data, video, computer games ….
in 1994, started selling the world’s first smart phone, full use touch keyboard, is also the first software applications as a selling point of the phone.
Now accustomed to the scene, twenty years ago, but a grand ideals.
3G has been carrying the global telecommunications industry is highly anticipated, in 2000, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy and Spain and other countries, began to bid for 3G licenses and wireless spectrum auction, the total dropped about various operators
$ 90 billion.
Germany is a record of $ 45.8 billion 3G license auction record.
fair to say that the high bid in the future are to be passed on to consumers.
European 3G license fee is about 3 times the deployment of the system, meaning that non-voice revenues generated from the provision of 3G (that is, access fees) must be three times the voice of the whole investment to recover.
In the absence of a killer application of mobile Internet, is clearly impossible.
So developers left a debt and almost useless 3G licenses left, some companies are also trying to litigate with the government to issue licenses.
Not only difficult follow-up financing and equipment investment, the share price fell, but also to launch 3G services can not be scheduled.
European telecommunications industry was in a state of defeat.
United States, “Bloomberg Business Week” to “bubble Story”, “a European catastrophe” to describe the disillusionment of the European 3G vision.
Until four or five years, European operators gradually recovered, began building the 3G network.
Compared to early burn money, so that a step slow on 3G transition Europeans, US carriers due to the existing problems so that the frequency of issuing licenses occupancy time delay until early 2004 to issue 3G licenses
, which in the United States and the company retained more spare money into 3G networks can be said to be a blessing in disguise.
With a sound after the 3G network, everything is ready, only a strong wind, he sent a smart phone.
The first smart phone operating system Microsoft released in 1996 Windows CE.
Since Microsoft has no rival in the PC operating system, the face of new mobile communications market in the past way of thinking still used PC operating system, leading to a slow system of birth defects.
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in fact, only a streamlined version of the Windows system, Symbian beginning for mobile phones and health, stability has better performance.
Unfortunately, in 1999– Between 2004, Symbian is still the traditional phone functions based on the development of the internal state of mind Nokia always: The most important thing is how to sell the phone, just let the phone application
Symbian, Nokia had also recommended that in the development of smart phones have more other features, but unfortunately Nokia is listening.
are like this scene at the time of the transition from analog to digital Motorola handset, was the most profitable, speak the loudest sector is the keyboard, good answer feature phones, touch-screen, even the most critical APP
Nokia ecosystem is not in the high-level cognition.
In Fuzion Windows Mobile and Symbian, Nokia is still a dominant situation, there is a character is secretly grow forces, and its name is Apple.
In 2005, Apple bought a company called FingerWorks, the company since 1999, began developing gesture recognition, multi-touch technology, but at the time this application is not for people
optimistic, no one guessed that Apple bought it what to do.
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the iTunes Music Store, Safari, Email, Camera and other applications, begin graphically presented on the simple and beautiful screen, with multi-touch screen technology, iPhone to get rid of the keyboard, with a single finger to operate the Home key and
“The best interface is that our fingers,” Jobs stressed on the iPhone conference.
iPhone Era of innovation does not stop there.
Early APP mounted in the phone, the start page is downloaded, transmitted to the mobile phone terminal, then install itself.
In 2008 Apple introduced iOS 2, the most important new application store (App Store), you can download and install applications on the platform, began a new era of APP ecosystem.
You will not use the phone to sell ecosystem, the ecosystem will use to sell mobile phones.
Symbian has been a good show and to encourage third-party developers, when released in the iPhone, has ten thousand a variety of applications on the Symbian platform.
However, Symbian spent a full seven years on the achievements APP ecosystem made, Apple released iOS in a year after the first edition of the multi-beyond.
Apple’s rapid success and Symbian rough fate because of the same reason: application store.
through a unified platform to help Apple users more easily purchase applications, can only say that the lack of an app store is a fatal mistake ── Symbian For people without the resources developed will be very difficult, but
development and maintenance costs are high.
Although the invention is not Apple smartphones, but now the general perception in the smartphone contained four functions:
Multi-touch (multi-touch screen) < / p>
phone operating system (Mobile operating system)
application download platform (App platform)
to the past experience of various manufacturers attempt to integrate a famous battle.
true visionary entrepreneur, is 10 years ahead of the trend and saw early layout, and finally launched the product at the right time point, the market explosive growth.
and enhance the deployment of 3G network speed, as early as around 2005 had already completed (if not bankruptcy reorganization in Europe, the United States delayed the license, 3G technology has been established as early as in 2000), while mobile Internet
The application (App), mobile operating systems have long been carried out.
But always like a bad football team, like the lack of finishing touches, so that the small number of 3G users, not always popular.
But also because of the resources already ready, so only the achievements of the iPhone’s success.
Smartphone in 2005– 2007 start, 2008 – 2012 years of explosive growth, the turning point is iPhone.
Smartphone sensation, has successfully pulled 3G subscribers jumped, then ushered in the era of 4G higher-speed Internet access.
4G changing situation
initiated by the OFDM with the development of smart phones, mobile traffic demand rises, W-CDMA HSDPA 3.5G in a subsequent evolution,
3.75G of HSUPA, but no change of CDMA technology framework.
Qualcomm CDMA subsequent evolution of the 1x EV-DO, in 2001, been accepted as one 3G technology standards.
Originally this continues to CDMA as the core technology might be possible to dominate all the way to 4G, but unfortunately it did not.
One character halfway there, rounded out the market will upset all plans, this guy named Intel.
1 Intel counter-attack – WIMAX
briefly explain the unlicensed spectrum that something.
Until the 1980s, the United States had to go through all of the wireless devices spectrum authorization.
Later, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) will relax the standard, only to transmit power is larger, wireless devices prone to signal interference and subject to spectrum authorization, other low-fat transmit power devices can use unlicensed spectrum.
These early studies unlicensed spectrum no importance, IEEE started until the short distance wireless transmission.
WiFi devices that transmit power can not exceed 100mW at IEEE predetermined, the actual transmit power may also 60 to 70mW.
In order to allow various manufacturers can produce compatible according to the same standard equipment, so that communications equipment can have interoperability, in 1999, IEEE 802.11b and 802.11a were introduced two kinds WiFi standard, were used
2.4GHz and 5GHz bands, standard incompatible with each other.