Poker Finance brand: the most trusted commodities and financial services industry think tank.
Cross-border, depth, professional – brings together the industry’s most worth sharing, the most knowledgeable information concentration.
Welcome to the venue and micro-channel public platform: puoketrader, Website: poker large investors and financial industry think tank platform
Lead: “authoritative” Why has such a powerful influence?
text | Shao added source | add a little less class, ID: lishaojia2015 Edit | Poker investor, please indicate the source
tell you a secret: I and my other two friends, three people on average assets ratio of net worth reading this article to all readers and also more.
What, you do not believe?
Oh, forgot to say, I have two friends named Ma.
* refers to two with Tencent boss Ali
above is undoubtedly the “facts”, but it would create a wrong impression – I was a millionaire Forbes standings, a
This is a big lie implicit “self-assigned authority”: the fact that deceive the world.
a, upgrade scam: Hunting thought
obey authority, under the enlightened social civilization and progress (sufficient and necessary precondition), rely on the judgment of authority (the
) in the long run do more good than harm.
However, blindly listen to authority, especially the “illegitimate” authority, many far-reaching impact will produce negative effects (classic “influence” have made it very thorough, does not match go into details).
This is not the subject matter hereof.
This article examines the “cure the root of the Road”, not how to see through concrete trick, but the complete elimination of the “big liar” who is the strongest tools of crime – see through “illegitimate authority.”
That is, those who manipulate others through the “authority” to achieve their own interests, whether it is the means by which “self-Fu” authority?
We will classify the scam to “whether they have repeatability fraud” points, all fraud can be divided into two categories: one-time scam, long-term scam.
The former typically have:
- to fraud asymmetric information (such as flicker old)
- Israel fraud (mostly men and women cheat)
- to fiscal Pianse (men and women cheat mostly)
- big lie to fool the small (greedy greedy people cheat more people) ……
p> such “one-off scam” Although practitioners base, wide range, but in addition to a small number of victims (the ratio) cause irreversible tragedy, at least in terms of the majority of people who were fooled or slightly educational, right
when pay tuition fees.
In contrast, another type of “long-term fraud,” its hidden deep, large destruction is even more amazing.
It is not only continuing taking money victims, while also invade each other’s “ideas, values, time allocation” (ideological virus), resulting in long-term spiral, infection type negative impact on some people and
time limit words, the negative impact of even a lifetime.
So, these “long-term scam”, what does?
We are more familiar common are: MLM brainwashing, fanatical religious organizations.
The reason why such scams disguised good, far-reaching harm, because it does not rely on “material benefit” those plain temptations (source of infection), just as the victim was deceived simple means of access to “immune antibody”
(learn to resist the same trick), this scam will also evolve more “decoy factor”, which is more ideological virus, which are essential elements –
use of “prestige” (or
power authority) of.
prestige, the prestige of you …… do not know when the term electro-optical flint flash, my mind flashed the first time what.
To be sure, it will not be on the interview MLM, not religion.
If you did not guess wrong, most people are flashed, the information age gave birth to a large number of magical species: “celebrity”, “experts”, the big V, a large coffee (especially those by “unconventional”
means to obtain the honor of the group).
So, in order to obtain permanent see through “long-term scam” immunity, we may wish to have a thorough understanding of why such a powerful influence.
Second, the authority of the logical evolution: foundation governing large-scale power
Any “social” species, there are levels of nature, from the evolution of populations
adaptive perspective, this “level characteristic” is obviously a positive thing.
After all, it is the effective deployment of collaborative basis with the governing power of the entire population, which greatly transform the living environment (such as ants, bees nest), which is any individual within its poor population
cumulative lifetime and power can not be achieved.
and this is the governing dependency” authority “mechanism to achieve.
in the population, whether it is against foreign enemies (including external harsh natural environment), or to get more living within ethnic groups, multiply resources, subject to the authority of the whole are “the advantages far outweigh the disadvantages.
those who do not obey the nature of it?
In addition to a handful of individuals have an absolute advantage (replacing the old authority), the other most of all be dead.
Obviously, after tens of thousands over hundreds of thousands of generations, we have good reason to believe that “obedience to authority” preferences firmly engraved in our genes, like all desire for love, authority
people also have a strong instinct influence.
* Other views: developmental psychology (and psychoanalysis) believe that we are mainly derived from the early life growing up dependent on their parents for authority “superstition and fear.”
Shao added believes it explains part of the reason, or to strengthen the influence of “authority” of the individual, but the root cause is due to evolutionary pressure.
Please readers judge for themselves.
Fortunately, in modern civilized society, who won the “authority” through the proper way groups are usually both “wisdom, courage and virtue”, and the resources they control groups can really push
society toward a better direction.
However, due to the lower number of new Internet communication tools, low cognitive level group of ideological support, was able to pass through a portion of ulterior motives careerist awareness of the “authority” (or subconscious),
artificial “fiction fabricated” authority.
Reference: “After the Internet: boredom is dead, a social crisis, the story of the rise of”
We understand that the foundation (the power of sculpture in the gene) biology “authority” formation
after, it is understandable that those who get “authority” can easily implement “long-term scam”, but also often victims of “unwitting” let butchered.
So, those liars who are careerists fictional authority by which means it?
Here, one by one expose these people means.
Third, the self-assigned authority fabrication techniques: a lot of attention, cross-validation, registration threshold, the input distortion
We mentioned earlier the authority of the evolutionary logic,
Not difficult to imagine, in order to allow the “authority” of influence can always “communicated” to any individual in the population, the inevitable need to evolve appropriate support mechanisms: obey the parties need to allocate resources to those high attention to tribal authority body (
typically patriarch, wizard)
* after all, humans do not have bees, ants like that of a biological or hormonal way radio communication
in other words, in the long primitive societies,
get “a lot of attention of the people” and “authority” is almost in a one to one relationship.
That is, an individual’s prestige and attention to the subject of the highly positively correlated.
* social psychology experiment also verified the same conclusion from different angles.
This partly explains the tall, handsome appearance usually easier to obtain trust (they get more attention, naturally occurring sense of authority) evolutionary basis.
This gives the current “authority falsifiers” are a very large loopholes chance: just upgrade their degree of concern of the masses.
In particular, need to guard against is that even totally false “concern” can play a certain effect.
So, how much attention the magnitude of what people will be able to produce by the “authority effect” mean?
Standard nowadays, it is very small, probably only the number of primitive tribal society Typically, about 150 people.
Please note that this kind of authority instinct “trust” is engraved in the gene (reflected in the reptile brain), as long as we are a little inattentive, will be affected, “authority” to speak
For example, when a person first contact, see the light of the following description (card, Profile, Main Introduction, direct view or “fan amount”):
- “know almost (micro-Bo, the public number) one hundred thousand / million / ten million fans big V”
- “best-selling author (implicit in his work received much attention)” li >
- “celebrity recommendation, agency recommended”
- “well-known network of red (which implies a lot of people were concerned)”
- even “know almost high praise answers author (hidden
by a large number of people agree with) “
* specific to some people, do not pigeon-holing
solemn Description: because when you read this, have to know in advance” theme ”
(the equivalent of playing a psychological vaccine), and in “God perspective”, it will feel like the introduction did not much influence.
But on the ground, especially face to face, more or less inevitable given to awe your instincts.
In addition, because there are a lot of fallacious reasoning human intuition (quick thinking and decision-making over-simplified preferences), it can also be disguised to achieve “similar to the effect of authority” by the following “variant policies”: p>
- display contacts, fabricated celebrity friends
- display or fabricated famous enterprises, elite background, high incomes
- display or trumped-known success stories
- “accidentally” reveal the wealth background
< li> display or fabricated certificates, titles (such as a company founder, a large business executives)
img src = "https://i.loli.net/2020/08/12/NAyzg6QXFsKfuoE.jpg" data-caption = "" data-rawwidth = "600" data-rawheight = "370" class = "origin_image zh-lightbox-thumb" width = "600" data-
original = "http://www.ask-why-blog.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMzLnpoaW1nLmNvbS92Mi05NDhhZDViMDdhYWE0Y2FiMDI2NTgzYjdmMzJkZWZiOV9yLmpwZw.jpg">
If you think this is “shoddy”, then look at these “pseudo-experts” to further camouflage skill bar, a large number of applications Principles of Psychology:
The first is that these “so-called celebrity”
They are common between the “cross-validation” measures, can further have a “cooperative reinforcement” effect.
You will always see a lot of “so-called big V” have very close relations with each other.
Dubious when you suddenly see a large V million fans say other nice things, what is there to think twice of it?
Once recognized by the other authority “legitimacy”, for most people, instinct will be “high to see the other one,” which provides the psychological basis for you to easily follow others to exert influence, which is very
Deng easy to produce threshold phenomena (foot-in-the-door phenomenon), has been shown to be very effective.
Then, further, once we decide to trust someone, which is equivalent to accept each other’s thoughts with values, according to cognitive dissonance theory (one of the most important core theory of psychology), in order to maintain our
“self” sense of continuity, information to the outside world will take selective exposure (selective exposure), in addition to enhance the impact of (self-serving bias effect), that prefer to support their own views of the old information, resentment, rejection, distortion initiative
In short, once we accept the “conservative ideas” (pseudo-experts favorite, absolute argument), it is difficult to open the heart to accept other points of view.
deformity is more, even if it is “due to adverse events in disguise to get public attention,” the authority who can produce the same effect.
Not specifically named, anyway, when those disgusting Bala “celebrity” If reviled by the public in front, still let you have instinctive “sense of deterrence.”
(Behind cognitive dissonance at play)
* It is understood that a large-scale enterprise group is relying on such “self-assigned authority” way out of the big brainwashing training (for example, PS Some foreign
heads of state meeting handshake photo), which is the Chinese “Ponzi scheme” common trick.
In addition, other “so-called secondary authoritative certification body” is through the money can buy, really do not know what “authority” are to be believed.
At this point, you might ask, even though he gives the authority produced a fictional, but so what?
What harm can it applied specifically?
Fourth, the extension of the damage: From Identification to enveloped in a distorted understanding of the world
We might think the next, in order to contact with you, affect you, at
fictitious authority also want to reach you, they are holding what motive?
ranging from you earn “money”, such as to attract your attention and earn advertising fees, you recommend some goods to earn “transformed commission” …… This is bad enough, but only
Once again, we play at Imagination:
Suppose you through “non-legitimate means” to get the authority, you are not more people who want to worship you, the better, as long as possible worship
So, therefore, what would you expect?
of course, is: “Let those who are stupid silly fork more violent it ……”
This is bound to happen.
So, these people will do our best to instill the values of inhibition thinking (that makes people stupid) is.
When we identify a person’s height values, the natural instinct will be to the kind of distorted perception (expected) “selective” absorption of external information (
cognitive psychology), as the more you pay for those “distorted thinking”, the more difficult to accept you, “opposite argument” values.
Remember those “so-called big V” who said earlier cross-validation, right?
This further attention to your limited resources “circle” a cure cognitive island, such as you follow A, B, C, D, E, F and other “experts” Though they are not in one area, but each other mutual
as a “friend” each other Publicizing different appearance, as the essence of the values (try to curb your thinking).
I ask you the probability of escape from this “cognitive trap” in how much?
our summary, after these “cooperative reinforcement” “authoritative alliance” in the end how terrible.
They integrated application of a variety of “physiological effect”, “psychological effect”:
physiological effects include: “a sense of authority” can easily invade the values and ideological influence; “large amount of attention
“effect, fabricated as effective, as effective as many other dazzling variety; cross-validation effect;
psychological effects include: cognitive dissonance theory, the theory of self-impression management, self-perpetuating sense of demand, Tang threshold effect,
input and output information distortion
there are so powerful and comprehensive brainwashing under natural enhancement, the victims in what state?
victims living in the equivalent of a huge” virtual reality “in:
any problems can be solved, and you just close your eyes, to”
* This is why the cult of fanatical followers will take wonderful logic you can not imagine to justify their faith, should the victims have rejected the values of the cult, which is equivalent to completely deny itself.
At this point, we can discuss last a ripe topic:
V. Reset inherent “authority evaluator,” a judge may not need to experience
previous tweets talked species is “smooth evolution” instead of “fault evolution.”
Therefore, our brains can not suddenly refreshed by a purely “gorilla operating system” into a “purely human operating system.”
We are in a slow process of evolution from fish, reptiles, mammals slowly “tinkering” Tempered.
That’s why many “animal instinct” Although in the present form of society is already “more harm than good”, but we also still stubbornly retained.
So, we in the end how to effectively “reset” innate animal nature (especially fear), to completely get rid of some careerists who manipulate it?
must again solemnly declare that from start to finish and I do not have any trace of denying the value of “trusted authority” means.
In the enlightened social and human background (dynamic social philosophy), subject to the guidance of the authorities of all walks of life is indeed a kind of “effective decision-making tools.”
After all, so that everyone possesses the authority of all walks of life in the moment of cognitive point of view is not realistic (do not rule out future after the grand unified theory will become reality perfect)
However, the current situation, the domestic ”
pseudo-experts “atmosphere of growing popularity, blind luck trusted expert (trust the authorities) are” more good than harm “or” more harm than good “, it is hard to say.
risked his life to remind: the purchase of books, the proposal directly to ignore large coffee or celebrity recommended language, bestselling author fame and other factors.
So, when we need advice from external experts do not know “who the letter” how to do?
Many great scientists of modern, humanistic thinkers (including philosopher, theoretical physicist) more agreeable definition of a human is:
People who are creative common explanation
this definition of” person “value to pull a fairly high position:
these pioneers of human civilization, people believe that creative thinking.
Here the “creative” means is open to humility to question the authority of the best theory, continue to seek a better explanation, progressive ideas.
The definition of how we distinguish “the authenticity of experts” to provide a simple but very precise revelation – that is, although we do not understand those areas of knowledge, lack of experience in this field, but we
he was able to determine whether the so-called experts in the field really have “hard power”, really worthy of “prestige he owned.”
assessment of the following elements, the following features of the more hits, the “experts (authority),” the more untrustworthy:
1 for any “key ideas” will not give.
to any profound, rigorous logic explanation
For example, it reads “worthless knowledge, valuable contacts only.”
I will not judge this argument itself, but the context of this argument.
Some are usually tailored story, more than emotional, speculative insufficient to force the reader into the “fast decision-making mode” (low-level explanation).
In fact, write the argument of “expert” I would like to ask the following:
your “knowledge” itself in the end know about?
In terms of generalized “knowledge”, our genes, and even human existence, they are all knowledge of nature.
It is to deny that knowledge is worthless “human value in itself”, and that a network of value?
Serious logical paradox.
pseudo-experts argument is typically characterized by a lack of transparent explanation, very fond of “absolute” argument, “explained single perspective,” which comes from “summed doctrine”, but also a very superficial summarized.
2. Hardly content
activate the reader “speculative” thinking there is if you talk to some “pseudo-experts”, you will find them “forever
to give you the answer, “whether he really understand or not understand.
In addition, they remind you of the “No”:
Everything has its limitations, the scope of application, there is a negative effect, and so on …… even the risk of oversimplification, if the opportunity arises
they will try to make you give up thinking: by providing a superficial answer cramming way through inexpensive way to manipulate emotions, by logical fallacy intuitive ……
3 likes to emphasize the “big”
number, background, contacts, social
and “authority” with the situation “by the high degree of concern,” one to one similar to the human instinct would be “large quantity” to “good” also
linked together (evolutionary psychology, neurobiology).
That is, the information in the decision-making uncertain circumstances, “the number of many”, “bulky” which represents “good” (derived from primitive society to survive the scarcity of resources).
That’s why you will think:
- “bestseller (sell more),” on behalf of “books”
- know the answer to almost point
high praise amount, is “valuable answer.”
- “high amount of reading the article,” is a good article
- pseudo-experts were particularly fond of playing with this set.
This variant is thought to extend emphasis on “personal social background, title, contacts and more, strong network of contacts.”
- For example, rather abruptly to a circle of friends: my good friend so and so (public figures) any connection
how do I how the.
4. Emotional, eloquent story far more than from any field will not mention the “social value”
Research is a natural or social sciences, humanities, whether commercial scientists, lawyers, management experts, financial economists, computer science, physics and biochemistry scientists …… any field, as long as “we”, he is bound
Discussion on “social value” of the level of output, intentionally or unintentionally.
This is not because the “real experts” of high moral character, because, regardless of any discipline, when you dig to a certain extent at least the dimensions of the discipline learned from: Human civilization is very fragile,
also more fragile than we think.
output positive values, consider the social impact, not only to save human civilization itself, but also in saving himself, in public and in private.
On the other hand, pseudo-experts goal is to narrow the “material benefit maximization”, more is to teach you how to succeed, how to make money (but also not easy mental and physical), how to get “contacts” to
this won a large number of “concern”, and continue to strengthen its distinguished authority.
more than four points, no specific foundation of professional or social experience, very practical.
Shao added in determining a person’s cognitive level or buy books often used.
Sixth, the end
quantum physicist Professor David Deutsch Personally, I very much appreciate, he proposed a “principle of optimism,” I agree
All evil is caused by lack of knowledge.
This is what this article would like to try to convey an idea.
notice yesterday, some readers will think I broke some of today’s public figures, in fact, this is not against anyone.
Purely on an individual, a community irony, what significance does it have?
The question is not who, the problem is not that any organization, which is the narrow-mindedness that we must cross, which we can have optimism:
All the problems are inevitable,
However, all problems can be solved through knowledge.